Botany: Salvia officinalis is a small, evergreen shrubby perennial with woody stems near the base and herbaceous ones above, much branched. It grows up to about 0.8 m high. It is native to Mediterranean region, and cultivated worldwide. The part used is the leaf.

Salvia lavandulaefolia grows wild in Spain and south-western France. The part used is the leaf.

The Latin name salvia comes from the Latin word salvare meaning “to save.”

Products: Sage (S. officinalis) contains 1,0-2,8% volatile oil, quinine- and abietane-type diterpenes, flavonoids, phenolic acid (rosmarinic, labiatic, caffeic, hydroxycinnamic) and phenolic glycosides of caffeic and benzoic acid, and trace amounts of chlorogenic acid, anthraquinones, salviatannin, and others.

Sage is one of major plants that contain the plant sterol, β-sitosterol. It has powerful skin properties including the reduction in skin erythema (skin redness), the reduction of pruritis (skin itching) and the reduction in inflammation.

Stigmasterol is closely related phytosterol and is also found in sage. It has similar properties to sitosterol.

Salvia officinalis botanical extract
Extract from the leaves of sage, Salvia officinalis. Sage was shown to possess a strong anti-oxidative efficiency comparable to rosemary. Sage leaf extracts exhibit strong antioxidant activity, largely attributable to various phenolic constituents including phenolic diterpenes, such as carnosol and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, notably rosmarinic acid.

Sage oil and Spanish sage oil are obtained by steam distillation of dried leaves from Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulae folia respectively. The oils contain α- and β-thujones as the main components. Other components present include cineole, borneole, viridiflorol, 1,8 cineole, camphor, limonene, and others.


Sage reportedly has antibacterial, fungistatic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, secretion-stimulating and perspiration-inhibiting effects. Phenolic acids isolated from sage have antimicrobial activities. Spanish sage oil has also been reported to have antimicrobial properties.

Salvia officinalis botanical extract
Sage extract has strong antioxidant activities. It is used as a lotion or compress for wounds, dandruff and hair loss. It is useful in baths to treat skin problems. It soothes the mucous membrane, and is good for inflammation of the mouth, or inflamed and bleeding gums. It makes a good mouthwash.

Salvia officinalis essential oil
The oil has been used in Europe for skin conditions such as eczema, acne, dandruff, and hair loss. It has been recognised for its benefits in relieving mental fatigue. The aromatherapy benefits are said to be uplifting and relaxing. There are many different sages and each have a unique aroma.

Both sage oil and Spanish sage oil are used (the former much more extensively) as fragrance components in soaps, detergents, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Spanish sage oil is generally more commonly used in soaps, detergents, and industrial fragrances.


Spanish sage oil was non-irritating and non-sensitising to human skin and skin of laboratory animals. It was also non phototoxic on mice and swine.

Dalmatian sage oil has been reported to be non-irritating and non-sensitising to human skin when tested in diluted form. When applied undiluted, it produced one irritation reaction in 20 subjects and was moderately irritating to rabbits.




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